A number of years ago I was asked to prepare a teaching on the Tabernacle of Moses—the Mishkan. I had read the endless narratives in the Torah many times where each part of the Tabernacle, meticulously detailed by the Lord, commanded the Israelites to only build a copy of the heavenly image. I had visited several life-size displays, one recently in Pennsylvania, but none revealed anything of particular magnificence. Even its size looked rather underwhelming—a small tent perched in the desert surrounded by miles of barren wilderness. From a near distance the structure would have been hardly noticeable.
I have lived in the desert so I am experienced with its harsh environment. My mind stirred up images of dust storms continuously pelting the wool curtains, covering everything with a fine layer of silt. It is not surprising that so many years later King David dreamed up a truly magnificent structure that would one day adorn the top of Mount Zion. In contrast, the Temple of Solomon was a colossal structure rising over 50-feet in height. It copied the pattern of the original Tabernacle, but everything else about it was otherwise upgraded.
I remember a friend of mine telling me that he was planning to teach on the restoration of the Tabernacle of Moses. What exactly did he mean by that since we were no longer under the law but under a New Covenant of grace? Still, there was something that resonated with me about the Tabernacle and its mystical artifacts. I believed that nothing in God’s kingdom was ever wasted. Just like creation, every detail in the Tabernacle must have been carefully thought out and meticulously woven together.
So I started my research and was immediately overwhelmed by the volume and depth of revelation the Lord was giving me. At first I put everything into a slide presentation, but there was considerably more that I needed to convey. I decided to finally write this teaching, as the Lord has given me further revelation about the Tabernacle, expanding on its earlier details.
The Tabernacle itself was constructed entirely of materials donated by the Israelites. Nothing was commanded by the Lord—just a free-will offering of the people. This was a significant deviation because the Law of Moses had mandated just about everything. Now the structure the Lord would use to communicate His laws to Israel was entirely funded with donations and managed by volunteers; sounds like church.
The Tabernacle was called the Tent of Meeting or the Tent of Testimony. A testimony is a divine decree that is attested in the Scriptures. So what exactly is the testimony of the Tabernacle? It has to be the spirit of prophesy,[i] as Yeshua said, “You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me” (John 5:39, NKJV),[ii] “For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy” (Revelation 19:10). Yeshua is therefore the Spirit of Prophesy.
So it appears the key to unlocking the mysteries hidden within the Tabernacle is that everything in it on some level must prophetically testify of Christ and not of man, Israel, the Levites, or even the Aaronic priesthood, but to Yeshua—the Son of God. This is where studying scripture from a deeper prophetic level is required.
The rabbis use four general approaches to studying the Torah. It is called Pardes, which means “orchard,” and refers to the Garden of Eden or Paradise. Pardes is therefore an acrostic (PRDS) signifying these four approaches:
Peshat – is the simple, literal meaning of the biblical narrative. Other approaches must always align with the Peshat. Most biblical commentary is based on this method of study.
Remez – approaches the Torah from an allegorical or allusional perspective. We see this in types, shadows, symbolism and numerology.
Derash – is the Midrashic or homiletic analysis of the text, or what we might call “story telling.” This may also include proof texting and narrative expansion of the biblical text. Yeshua often used this method to teach about the Kingdom of God.
Sod – is the esoteric and mystical approach to understanding the Torah. The purpose of this fourth and deepest level of study is to understand the text on the first three levels, and then to search out the nuances and subtle connections hidden within the text. Jewish mystics often used meditative and prayer techniques to encounter the spiritual realm in dreams and visions similar to those given to biblical prophets such as Ezekiel.
It is important to recognize that Hebrew is God’s holy language. The Hebrew of the Torah was the language used in creation, thus all created things are directly affected by their Hebrew names as well as their component letters.[iii] Jewish mysticism holds that all of creation issued forth from divine speech and that the Torah contains the wisdom of creation.[iv] This language therefore holds God’s authority, given to man to bless, to curse, and conceivably even to call down fire from heaven.[v] Hebrew therefore is unlike any other language who’s meaning of words result from human construct or consensus.
Hebrew is a logical and analytical language whose letters also contain numerical value. One field of numerology is called Gematria, which is the careful examination and analysis of word and letter placement and their numerical values to reveal relationships between words and letters. This finds higher meanings and mystical secrets hidden within the text. Samuel Avital calls Gematria “spiritual archeology,” suggesting that studying the Torah is akin to excavating an ancient city that has been hidden for millennia. We will delve into some simple numerology shortly.
Even at the simplest level of Torah study (Peshat), by understanding the Hebrew language we are able to unlock deeper spiritual relationships between root words. For example, the Hebrew word for “desert” is midbar, and the word for “speak” is davar. What incredible faith-building knowledge we gain by understanding that God speaks to His people in the dry lands. Yeshua spent forty-days in the wilderness—fasting, praying, and communing with His heavenly Father. Are you possibly encountering a desert season in your life? Rejoice, because the Lord is testing you and deepening your faith, and I believe He is preparing you to hear His voice!
Prophesy is how the divine will and God’s presence are made known to His people. It helps us discern the relationships between the seen and unseen—the physical and the immaterial. As the supreme language of the soul, prophesy is the vehicle by which the Creator instructs and guides His people to come closer to Him.[vi] The methods of prophetic study are complex, analytical, numerical, metaphorical, spatial, visual, relational, poetic, homiletic, etc. Prophetic vision therefore transforms the wilderness into ranks of order and fruitfulness.[vii]
True prophets do not add to God’s laws or biblical narrative. They simply discover the Torah’s hidden mysteries through divine revelation, and then reveal God’s truth to His people. This level of discovering God’s order is a combination of wisdom and understanding that together create the right conditions for prophesy.[viii] Therefore, it is not our responsibility to make order out of chaos, but rather to discover it.[ix]
Prophets tell the future, point to the dangers of the past and present (what we call watchmen), and give others hope and faith in the meaning of life. But most importantly, prophesy is given to verbally testify that Yeshua is both Lord and Messiah. He is the gate and the gatekeeper that brings us back into a relationship with our heavenly Father.[x]
The rabbis tell us that throughout all biblical history the Lord has divinely revealed Himself through speech, which we call prophesy; phenomena contravening the laws of nature, which are known as miracles; His management of history, or what we call divine providence (reward and punishment); and His physical appearance which is the manifestation of His Glory. Understanding biblical history therefore requires us to recognize God’s ability to speak with people, especially His prophets, to manage history according to His will, and to contravene the laws of nature so as to fulfill His objectives.
Prophetic testimony is therefore witnessed through all four divine manifestations. We see this with John the Baptist, as it is written, “This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through him might believe. He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light” (John 1:7-8). In other words, God does not expect us to simply believe in an invisible and unknowable God, but He gives us both His word and the physical evidence of His truth. Likewise, the Tabernacle of Moses was very much at the center of God’s pre-Christ manifestation to the nation of Israel.
The bible offers various terms for describing the manifestation of God. For example, dreams and visions can include anthropomorphic images of God, but the most frequently used term to describe God’s appearance is His Glory (Kavod). God’s Glory literally means His embodiment or concretization within some real worldly entity.[xi] We as Christians recognize this as Christ—the divine imminence and presence of the Creator.[xii]
The word Shechinah comes from the Hebrew root Shachen (שכן), which means to descend and “rest” or “dwell” in lowly levels.[xiii] The Tabernacle in Hebrew, the Mishkan also originates from the same root word, and specifically means “the place of dwelling.” God’s promise to Israel was that He would dwell in their midst,[xiv] and for this purpose the Tabernacle was built—to create a place for God to dwell and rest with His people. Therefore, the Tabernacle is the embodiment of the Shechinah, and are considered one in the same.[xv]
Within the Tabernacle, the supreme divine Glory of God (His Kavod) manifested itself as the Shechinah—a pillar of cloud of the divine presence by day and a pillar of fire by night. Interestingly, the Hebrew term Shechinah does not appear in the Torah, but it was used frequently in early Jewish religious and mystical works. Maimonides[xvi] believed the Shechinah was the aspect of the divine that was revealed to the biblical prophets in their visions, such as Ezekiel.[xvii]
In Judaism, the Shechinah is viewed as the divine feminine aspect of God. Not that God is viewed as a woman, but comprised within the Godhead is both the divine male and divine female, as it is written, “God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them” (Genesis 1:27).
The rabbis also correlate the Shechinah to the Word of God, and since we know that Yeshua is the Word of God made flesh, Yeshua is therefore both the Glory of God (His Kavod), and His indwelling presence (His Shechinah)—“And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth” (John 1:14); “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him” (John 14:23).
This does not imply however that Yeshua is a woman. No, the Lord has simply revealed the divine feminine attribute of the Godhead through Christ, this being His heart of “mercy.” Listen to the words of Yeshua as we see this attribute revealed to Israel: “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing” (Matthew 23:37). We will later expand on the attribute of divine mercy as it directly correlates to divine judgment.
It is the Shechinah that the Jewish people greet on Friday evening as the Sabbath (Shabbat) begins. This seventh primordial day signifies the fullness of creation. Jewish mystics regarded this divine union with the Shabbat as God’s wedding celebration with Israel. The Shabbat signifies eternal peace and rest in the Lord, and we know that Yeshua has promised that those who believe in Him will enter His eternal Shabbat.[xviii]
In Judaism, each sacred name of God is considered to be a separate and distinct manifestation of the Godhead.[xix] In these last days however we know that Yeshua is the embodiment of every form of God’s manifestations, including His Glory, Kingship, miracles, and the physical presence of our heavenly Father. As it says, “The Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth” (John 1:14). “In this the love of God was manifested toward us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him” (1 John 4:9). “He who has seen Me has seen the Father” (John 14:9). So let us now take a closer look at the Tabernacle and discover how every detail prophetically pointed to Christ.
The Tabernacle sat at the very center of Israel’s encampment in the desert—three tribes on each side, including the half tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, and the Levites and sons of Aaron camped in the middle (Figure 1). The head of each encampment carried a unique flag. Our early Sages taught that the banner of Reuben featured the figure of a man, the flag of Judah had the picture of a lion, the flag of Ephraim showed an ox, and the flag of Dan was decorated with the picture of an eagle.[xx] These four symbols appeared in the faces of Cherubim seen by the prophet Ezekiel,[xxi] and also appeared in the four living creatures found in the Book of Revelation.[xxii]
In Ezekiel’s vision we see the Cherubim in the midst and around the throne of God, while the Seraphim stand and fly above it.[xxiii] It is not that God has set angels to be higher than Himself, but this vision shows that He is at the center of all things that are heavenly and earthly. The Seraphim therefore minister to the heavenly realm, while the Cherubim minister to the earthly realm.
On this basis we can understand the profound significance of the camp of Israel. The Cherubim and the Tabernacle that Israel built are the chariot that carries the manifest presence of God, and the nation of Israel—the army of the Lord—is God’s escort; each person within their tribe encamped around the Tabernacle holding their unique banner of the Lord.[xxiv]
Seeing God’s throne on high, His feet touching the earth and resting upon a chariot of angels surrounded by an immeasurable host of God’s people, it is easy to visualize the poetry of God’s love for Israel—“He has not observed iniquity in Jacob, Nor has He seen wickedness in Israel. The Lord his God is with him, And the shout of a King is among them” (Numbers 23:21); “How lovely are your tents, O Jacob! Your dwellings, O Israel! Like valleys that stretch out, Like gardens by the riverside, Like aloes planted by the Lord, Like cedars beside the waters” (Numbers 24:5-6).
We can see there is something unique about the number “four.” Four is signified in the Hebrew alphabet by the letter Dalet, which translates as “door.”[xxv] We know that Yeshua is both the spirit of prophesy and the door to the kingdom of God. From this correlation we can deduct that the number four numerically represents both God’s testimony to the world about His sovereignty and character, which is the Kingdom of God, and also represents our witness of Christ to the world, which is prophesy.[xxvi]
Lastly, the Gospels contain four accounts of Yeshua’s life and ministry.[xxvii] These correlate directly to both the four living creatures and the four encampment flags of Israel (Figure 2).
The Outer Courtyard
The following illustration (Figure 3) shows the layout of the Outer Courtyard of the Tabernacle. It will become evident that every single detail not only points to Christ, but also to our journey of salvation through Him. It is so detailed that we can actually find spiritual significance for every artifact—its orientation, placement, material composition, shape, size, and color. Nothing has been added that is superficial or meaningless.
The Tabernacle presents a mystery that awaits our remarkable discovery, and it activates all five of our senses— sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. However, the ultimate purpose of the Tabernacle was really to awaken our sixth sense—our spiritual man. As the Lord said, “Circumcise the foreskin of your heart” (Deuteronomy 10:16). Our study will explore the details of the Tabernacle as it points to Yeshua, culminating with our journey of salvation that follows in the footsteps of our Savior.
Exile of the Shechinah
The rabbis refer to Mount Zion (also called Mount Moriah and the Temple Mount) as the gateway to heaven. Here it is believed that Abraham prepared to offer his son, Isaac as a sacrifice to the Lord. Here it is believed that Jacob dreamed of a ladder connecting heaven and earth with angels descending upon the son of man (clearly a reference to the Messiah). In addition, here King Solomon constructed the first Temple (Beit Ha’mikdash) that permanently established the Tabernacle of Moses in Jerusalem.
We know, however, that Yeshua ascended to heaven from the Mount of Olives, which is opposite Mount Zion across the Kidron Valley. Here it was prophesied that He would return to establish His earthly kingdom—“And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, Which faces Jerusalem on the east” (Zechariah 14:4).
So why does it appear there are two gateways to heaven? The explanation is simply because of the exile of the Shechinah from the Temple to the Mount of Olives from Israel’s idolatry and abominations[xxviii]—“And the glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city and stood on the mountain, which is on the east side of the city” (Ezekiel 11:23). It is taught by the rabbis that the Shechinah went into exile with the Jewish people, and that God remained with His people throughout all their persecutions.
It was many years later from this mountain that Yeshua—the Glory of God manifest as His Shechinah—wept over Jerusalem.[xxix] However, we rejoice in knowing that He is coming back for His people, and Israel will cry out, “Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord” (Matthew 23:39), “And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: ‘The Deliverer will come out of [the heavenly] Zion [to Mount Zion in Jerusalem], And He will turn away ungodliness from Jacob’” (Romans 11:29).
The Eastern Gate
On the east side of the Outer Courtyard was “the gate.” Notice there are no other gates into the Outer Courtyard, indicating that we cannot enter the Kingdom of God by any other way, but only through Christ.[xxx] Once we are in Him, we are not to depart (exit) to the left or to the right, but the Lord will make our paths straight before us.[xxxi] Once we enter the Tabernacle, which is Christ Himself, we will never leave His presence, “And thus we shall always be with the Lord” (1 Thessalonians 4:17).
Situated today on the east side of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem is the Eastern Gate (Figure 4), also known as the Golden Gate, and in Hebrew Sha’ar Harachamim (the Gate of Mercy). It was the Shechinah Glory that came through and later departed from the Eastern Gate of the Temple.[xxxii] The Ottoman ruler, Sultan Suleiman sealed off the Golden Gate in 1541 to prevent the Messiah's entrance. The Muslims also built a cemetery in front of the gate believing that Elijah, the precursor to the Messiah would not be able to come near the dead. This belief was based upon on the Islamic teaching that Elijah, a descendant of Aaron the High Priest of Israel would be prohibited from entering a cemetery on fear of death.[xxxiii]
However, the Ottoman was only fulfilling the Word of God, as it says, “Then He brought me back to the outer gate of the sanctuary which faces toward the east, but it was shut. And the LORD said to me, This gate shall be shut; it shall not be opened, and no man shall enter by it, because the LORD God of Israel has entered by it; therefore it shall be shut” (Ezekiel 44:1-3).
The Tabernacle was oriented from east to west, with the entrance at the east. This was to signify the direction from which the Prince, the Messiah would come—“For as the lightning comes from the east and flashes to the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be” (Matthew 24:27). When Yeshua returns, He will first touch the Mount of Olives, which is east of the Temple Mount, and then He will enter Jerusalem by way of the Golden Gate. The east-west orientation is also an allegory to demonstrate just how complete our redemption is in Christ—“As far as the east is from the west, So far has He removed our transgressions from us” (Psalm 103:12).
Altar of Burnt Offering
The very first object one saw when entering the Outer Courtyard of the Tabernacle was the Altar of Burnt Offering (Figure 5).[xxxiv] The Altar was also called the Brazen Altar, the Outer Altar, the Earthen Altar, the Great Altar and the Table of The Lord. The Altar was the place of animal sacrifice, and symbolized the atoning sacrifice of Christ on the day of the Passover. It was located in the Outer Courtyard outside the Tabernacle, indicating that Christ would be cut off from His people.[xxxv]
Three separate piles of wood burned atop the Altar. The largest fire was where the sacrifices were burned, the second fire provided coals for the Altar of Incense within the sanctuary, and the third was the “perpetual fire” which constantly burned on the Altar. Nothing was placed on it, and no coals were taken from it. It existed solely to fulfill the commandment that there would be a perpetual fire.[xxxvi]
The Altar was made of wood and covered with bronze. The bronze represented the chastisement that Christ took upon Himself.[xxxvii] Brass is a different metal than bronze. Bronze has a darker and more unrefined appearance, while brass looks polished and refined.[xxxviii] The Lord’s chastisement and Christ’s obedience unto death was a refining process the Father placed on the Messiah—“For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin” (Hebrews 4:15). The bronze also represents the Lord’s chastising process He uses to bring His children to humility.[xxxix]
The blood of the sacrifices was thrown against the base of the Altar. Drink offerings (libations of wine) were also poured out there as a symbol of the New Covenant which we know is in Christ.[xl] All sacrifices had to be seasoned with salt. Yeshua compared Israel to the salt of the earth.[xli] If we are the salt of the earth, then we, like Christ are also a sacrifice and a sweet-smelling aroma unto the Lord.[xlii] Our flesh has been crucified with all its passions and desires, but His Spirit is alive within us[xliii]—“Beloved, do not think it strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened to you; but rejoice to the extent that you partake of Christ’s sufferings, that when His glory is revealed, you may also be glad with exceeding joy” (1 Peter 4:12-13). Like Him, we are also called to live a selfless and serving life; even called to suffer for His namesake.[xliv]
The Bronze Laver
The Bronze Laver was the second object one saw when entering the courtyard of the Tabernacle (Figure 6).[xlv] It represented the Baptism of Christ in the Jordan River. It was in this place that Christ’s ministry began as He prepared to enter the spiritual Tabernacle of God’s people, Israel.[xlvi]
Water symbolized purification—consecration and sanctification under the Old Covenant. It could not remove sin, only cover it. That is why Yeshua demonstrated through His first miracle at the wedding at Cana that He came to turn water into wine.[xlvii] Wine symbolized Christ’s atonement for sin, and only His could permanently remove them. Water Baptism therefore remains an outward expression of our faith in Christ.[xlviii] The ritual does not save us. Only the blood of Christ will.
Scripture tells us that the Laver was made from the bronze mirrors of the women serving at the door of the Tabernacle.[xlix] What is prophetically significant about mirrors? We know that everything in the Tabernacle was a shadow, a mere reflection of the greater things to come, as it says, “But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord” (2 Corinthians 3:18).
Since the Altar was the place of sacrifice and the Bronze Laver the place of Baptism, one might question why the Altar stood in front of the Bronze Laver? After all, wasn’t Yeshua baptized before going to the cross?
Yeshua’s ministry of sacrifice began before He ever came to the earth, and in fact we know that He is the “Lamb slain from the foundation of the world” (Revelation 13:8). Those things that have been established in the spiritual realm will ultimately see their fulfillment in the natural. Such was the crucifixion of Yeshua. Therefore, His Baptism in the Jordan River took place after He entered the world, and for three and a half years He ministered in the Outer Courtyard to the Jewish people until the time of His crucifixion when He would spiritually enter the Tabernacle itself. The Tabernacle was the last object one saw when entering the outer courtyard, which we will explore in more detail shortly.
The Great Contradiction
The very existence of the Tabernacle and the details of its planning and construction in the Book of Exodus seem to negate the fundamental principles of divine worship introduced at Sinai.[l] For the Lord said: “You shall not make for yourself a carved image—any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:4). And if you make Me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stone; for if you use your tool on it, you have profaned it” (Exodus 20:25).
This is the great contradiction. The Lord commanded the Israelites to not make any carved image or likeness of anything that is in heaven, or in the earth, or that is in the water, and then He instructed them to build a Tabernacle according to the image of the one He showed them in heaven.
For the answer to this paradox we need to look at the story of the Exodus which gives a glimpse of Israel’s heart towards God. Near the beginning of Chapter 19 the Lord declares that Israel shall be to Him a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.[li] Then He commanded the Israelites to consecrate themselves for three days, prohibiting them from coming near the mountain where He would soon appear. On the third day the Lord descended upon Mount Sinai and Moses went up to meet Him (Figure 7).
The following dialogue is rather peculiar because on one hand the Lord tells Moses to keep the people away from the mountain lest they perish, but at the same time requests that the priests who serve the Lord come near to Him: “And the Lord said to Moses, ‘Go down and warn the people, lest they break through to gaze at the Lord, and many of them perish. Also let the priests who come near the Lord consecrate themselves, lest the Lord break out against them.’ But Moses said to the Lord, ‘The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai; for You warned us, saying, ‘Set bounds around the mountain and consecrate it.’ Then the Lord said to him, ‘Away! Get down and then come up, you and Aaron with you. But do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to the Lord, lest He break out against them’” (Exodus 19:21-24).
It appears from the narrative that the Lord was angry with the people. But more likely He was heart-broken that the children of Israel, whom He called priests, had fallen into idolatry and refused to come near to Him. The rabbis have concluded from this story that, “The Israelites could not imagine a mode of divine service that strives to be as immaterial and non-physical as the God they served. They could not imagine a deity wholly other than the physical, present merely by his word and will.” In other words, the Israelites had become familiar with the earthly deities of the Egyptians, but now they were being asked to follow and worship an unknown and invisible deity who claimed to be above all. This natural disposition interwoven with hearts that had become dead to the spiritual things of God, created a people overcome by fear and unbelief who the Lord likened to “hearts of stone.”[lii]
In God’s mercy, the Lord established the Tabernacle of Moses and the Aaronic priesthood to demonstrate His grace through a temporary covering of sin, but more importantly it showed the Israelites the model of permanent redemption that would ultimately come through their Messiah—“But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, inasmuch as He is also Mediator of a better covenant, which was established on better promises. For if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second” (Hebrews 8:6-7).
The sons of Aaron would temporarily hold the seat of the great High Priest who would someday sanctify the people though His own sacrifice, petitioning the Father through intercession to place their sins upon Himself, and forever purifying Israel from her own iniquity. As it says, “For He said, Surely they are My people, Children who will not lie. So He became their Savior” (Isaiah 63:8).
Therefore, it was never God’s intention to have an earthly Tabernacle outside the physical indwelling of man. As it says, “By faith he [Abraham] dwelt in the land of promise as in a foreign country, dwelling in tents with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise; for he waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God” (Hebrews 11:9-10). And it was never God’s intention to have only one family of priests from the tribe of Levi, because the whole nation of Israel was to be to Him a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.[liii]
Our Sages have spoken: “The purpose of the creation of the world is the revelation of God’s sovereignty, for there is no king without a nation.”[liv] “This, in fact, is the whole purpose of man, and the purpose for which he, and all the worlds, both upper and lower, were created: that God should have such a dwelling-place here below—how this earthly abode for God is the purpose of all creation.”[lv]
Everything inside the Tabernacle (Figure 8), represents Yeshua’s final work of propitiation on the cross, and we can see the procession of His priestly ministry as we walk through the Tabernacle. Only the sons of Aaron were allowed to enter the Tabernacle, but only one of them, the High Priest was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies once per each year on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). We know that Yeshua is the true High Priest of Israel, not according to any earthly lineage, but His priesthood is of another kingdom—that of Melchizedek, which means “my King of Righteousness.”
Let us read Psalm 110:4 and translate directly from Hebrew (נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק). It is written, “Swears YHVH and will not relent, you are a priest to the world [also translated as an immeasurable distance, meaning infinite or forever] upon My spoken word, Malchie-zedek (King of Righteousness).” From this word-for-word translation it becomes clear that the Father is speaking to His son, Christ Yeshua who is named Melchizedek (King of Righteousness), and upon His written word He will establish His priesthood, for Christ is the Word of God made flesh.
The Book of Hebrews tells us that Melchizedek was, “without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God, remains a priest continually (Hebrews 7:3). When we look at the Hebrew translation and correlate it to the New Testament, we come to the inescapable conclusion that Melchizedek is Yeshua, Son of the living God. Many theologians have similarly concluded that Melchizedek, as He appeared to Abraham was a preincarnate revelation of Christ. This is extremely important to understand in the context of the Tabernacle, because we can see that Yeshua, the Shechinah of God had been present with the Jewish people from the very first moment He appeared to Abraham.
Colors of the Tabernacle
The entrance of the Tabernacle was called “the door.” Inside was the Holy Place, and then beyond that (separated by a wool curtain) was the Holy of Holies.[lvi] One of the noticeable things about the Tabernacle was the adornment of its artifacts with specific colors—blue, purple, scarlet, white, gold, and silver.
Blue resembles the sea, the sea resembles heaven, and heaven resembles the throne of Glory.[lvii] The abundant use of this color tells us that it was the most important color used in the Tabernacle. No other color was capable of symbolizing the special relationship between God and Israel.[lviii]
Purple is the color of blood and represented the sacrifice for sin,[lix] and scarlet is the color of sin.[lx] White is the color of purity, symbolizing physical, moral and spiritual purity.[lxi] Gold represents divinity, the Holy Spirit, kingship, the priesthood, and it is also the color of the New Jerusalem.[lxii] The early Sages noted that the Tabernacle and its vessels symbolized a house meant to host the King.[lxiii] The Tabernacle is therefore a picture of Christ who is both the King of Kings and the great High Priest of Israel. The Tabernacle also represents God’s people who are being conformed into the image of Christ as a royal priesthood and a holy nation.
Lastly, silver is the color of sacrifice. This is a mysterious color because the silver was used in the Tabernacle inconspicuously. The wall of the Outer Courtyard was constructed of woven tapestries supported by square wood pillars. This fabric was hung on timbers using silver hooks and sockets that were secured with silver bands.[lxiv]
There is an interesting correlation of the outer wall to the assembly of a Torah scroll. The scroll itself is made of parchment—the skin of a kosher animal. The narrow rectangular strips of parchment are sown together and resemble the pattern of the outer wall—rectangular and vertical in their orientation. An expert scribe would carefully ink each letter with a feather quill from right to left and top to bottom. The rabbis consider the Hebrew letters to be hanging on the parchment and not physically attached to it.
So what is the correlation with the Messiah? Simply this: the wall of the Outer Courtyard resembles the pattern of a Torah scroll, which is the Word of God. Yeshua is the Word of God made flesh, hence the use of parchment for the scroll.[lxv] The Hebrew letters hang on the parchment the same way the fabric curtains hung on the wood pillars. The fabric was attached using silver.
Therefore, silver is the color of the Messiah’s sacrifice. Spiritually, it represents the instrument that was used to hang Yeshua to the cross, although in actuality He was likely crucified with iron spikes (the material of war and bondage).[lxvi] Unlike Gold, silver is a more subdued material that reflects our Savior’s character, as it says, “He has no form or comeliness; And when we see Him, There is no beauty that we should desire Him” (Isaiah 53:2).
Table for the Showbread
Upon entering the door of the Tabernacle and looking to the right, one would see the Table for The Showbread (Figure 9).[lxvii] The table was made of wood and covered with gold. Wood is the material of the cross, and gold is the color of the divinity and kingship of Christ who hung on it. The table stood along the north side of the Tabernacle wall signifying that Christ would be crucified to the north of the Temple; later called “the place of the skull” (Golgotha).[lxviii]
A blue cloth was draped over the table, and upon this cloth were placed the flat unleavened breads, also called the Bread of His presence. Although not explicitly stated in scripture, it is believed these breads were most probably unleavened.[lxix] The bread was then covered with a scarlet cloth.[lxx] The blue represents heaven and the divinity of Christ, while the scarlet covering represents our sin that He took upon Himself. These flat unleavened breads in the Tabernacle were similar to those used by our Savior on the Feast of the Passover (called the bread of affliction) in the officiating of the New Covenant.[lxxi] We know that Christ is the true bread of life who came down from heaven, and we know that He is the one who has taken our sin upon Himself and was broken for our iniquities.[lxxii]
The Golden Lampstand
On the left side of the Tabernacle stood the Golden seven-branched Lampstand (Figure 10).[lxxiii] The Lampstand was made of one single piece of pure hammered gold. Singular implies that God is indivisible—that He is “one” (Echad). Hammered indicates the Messiah would be a vessel in the Father’s hand, to mold and shape according to His will and purposes. The Golden Lampstand declares that Yeshua is the light of the world and the light and life of all men, and it correlates in scripture with the seven spirits of the Lord.[lxxiv] It stood opposite the Table for The Showbread along the south side of the Tabernacle. The base of the Lampstand, its lamps, wick-trimmers, trays, and all its oil vessels were covered with blue cloth, signifying heaven and the Kingdom of God.[lxxv]
The Golden Lampstand served no ceremonial purpose in the Tabernacle in regards to the animal sacrifices, except to adorn it with beauty. It’s placement along the southern wall would emulate the direction of sunlight, becoming nullified against its brightness during the daytime, but at night continuing to provide an eternal source of light to symbolize that Yeshua would continually illuminate the souls of men:[lxxvi] As prophesied, “The city [Jerusalem] had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it. The Lamb is its light” (Revelation 21:23).
Altar of Incense
The Altar of Incense was made of wood and covered with gold (Figure 11). Once again, wood is the material of the cross, and gold is the color of the divinity and kingship of Christ who hung on it. And similar to the Table for The Showbread, it too was covered with a blue cloth.[lxxvii] It was taller than the Table for The Showbread, perhaps taller than the menorah whose measurements are not found in scripture.
The Altar of Burnt Offering which sat in the Outer Courtyard represented Christ’s sacrifice for sin, while the Altar of Incense which sat inside the Tabernacle represented our sanctification from sin. Rabbinical commentary on the Altar of Incense concludes with the words: “It is a Holy of Holies unto God,” whereas the Altar of Burnt Offering is called only “a Holy of Holies.” Sacrifice without sanctification cannot bring us into an intimate relationship with our heavenly Father. Sacrifice pays for sin while sanctification washes us from it.[lxxviii]
The incense is a picture of the intercession of Christ that stopped the curse of the law and removed God’s wrath against Israel’s sin. It is also a picture of the prayers of the saints rising up to heaven.[lxxix] It is called a Holy of Holies unto God because it is about “prayer,” the very core of the relationship we have with Him.[lxxx]
When entering the Tabernacle, the sons of Aaron would minister in the place between the Menorah, the Table for The Showbread, and the Altar of Incense. This symbolized that the earthly priest was in the divine presence of the Lord—standing in the gap and acting as a mediator with the Lord for the nation of Israel.
The Altar of Incense stood outside the veil and the Holy of Holies. It was at this place that Christ officiated the New Covenant and sanctified His disciples, praying what is written in the Gospel of John: “Sanctify them by Your truth. Your word is truth. As You sent Me into the world, I also have sent them into the world. And for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also may be sanctified by the truth” (John 17:17-19). Yeshua interceded for His disciples, offering prayers to heaven, and then prayed again for them in the Garden of Gethsemane before going to the cross.
Yeshua could not make final atonement for our sin until He was crucified. Therefore, every work of Yeshua’s ministry fulfilled inside the Holy of Holies was done after His death. At the very moment Christ died, the veil separating man from God was torn. This was the moment when the blood of Christ (spiritually speaking) was sprinkled upon the Mercy Seat, and every work of Yeshua on the cross was finished.[lxxxi]
Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant (Aron Ha’brit), also known as the Ark of the Testimony and the Ark of The Lord God, served as a miniature royal throne for the Glory of God and corresponded with the actual royal throne in heaven (Figure 12). It contained the two stone tablets of testimony on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed, Aaron’s rod which sprouted an almond blossom, a jar of manna which did not spoil and the first Torah scroll written by Moses.
The Ark was made of wood and covered with gold. Again we see the pattern of the wood symbolizing the material of the cross, and gold symbolizing the divinity and kingship of Christ who hung on it. Sitting on top of the Ark was the Mercy Seat. It was made of pure gold upon which the blood of the sacrifice was sprinkled on the Day of Atonement. The Lord would speak to Moses, and on occasion to the High Priests of Israel from above the mercy seat.
Two Cherubim angels made of pure gold stood on either side of the Mercy Seat facing each other. Our Sages wrote that Cherub angels have a child-like appearance, hence their portrayal in Christian art as small babies with wings. The rabbis tell us the angels would actually embrace each other to show God’s affection towards Israel. Their wings extended upwards towards heaven and stretched and out over the Mercy Seat to symbolize their earthly dominion and their service to our Lord and Savior upon the earth.
Two long wooden poles were used on either side of the Ark so that it could be carried by the Levites. The priests stood facing each other in similar fashion to the two Cherubim. The spiritual picture here is the priests were to carry God’s Glory and presence, His Shechinah upon their shoulders. Their stance was also an expression of admiration and submission towards the Lord.
The Ark itself, which contained the Ten Commandments, served as a foundation stone to the Mercy Seat, indicating that the law would come first, and later the New Covenant which would rest upon the foundation of God’s perfect law.[lxxxii] We know that Christ did not come to abolish the law, but to fulfill it, and He said that not one tiny detail of the law would be done away with until all His work is fulfilled.[lxxxiii] This of course includes His triumphant return, and His final restoration of the nation of Israel.
The Mercy Seat and the blood sprinkled on it symbolized the final Atonement of Yeshua on the cross. After His death he was laid in a tomb carved from stone. Again, we see the correlation of stone representing the spiritual condition of Israel’s heart towards her Messiah. But on the day of the resurrection we see two angels standing on either side of the stone bed appearing in the same form as the two gold Cherubim over the Mercy Seat.[lxxxiv] The Ark and its two angels were in essence a prophetic image of what Christ would fulfill many years later.
Judgment and Mercy
The Hebrew word for “Cherub” is “Keruv,” which literally translates as “angel of destruction or judgement.” In Ezekiel’s vision he saw four Cherubim angels ministering around the throne of God. It is interesting to note that only two Cherubim and not four were placed on top of the Ark of the Covenant. It is speculated that the other two Cherubim are guarding the entrance to the Garden of Eden.
It is also interesting to note that these “angels of judgement” were placed at the very center of God’s “seat of mercy”—a reflection of His love and grace towards His people Israel. The most important garment worn by the High Priest in the Tabernacle was the ephod. It was an apron-like garment worn over his other clothing, and was fastened with a long belt in the front opposite his heart. Draped over the Ephod was another garment called the “Choshen Mishpat.” In Hebrew this translates as the “breastplate of judgment” or “breastplate decision.” Twelve precious stones were embedded in the breastplate, each representing a specific tribe of Israel whose name was inscribed on the stone. Additionally, two sardonyx stones (called “stones of remembrance”), were inscribed with the twelve tribes of Israel (six on each stone) and affixed to the shoulders of the High Priest.[lxxxv]
It is told by the Sages that the Divine “left hand” of God represents judgement (Gevurah), which is the Supernal attribute of severity, and that the Divine “right hand” of God represents mercy (Chesed), which is the Supernal attribute of love, and is consistent with this scripture: “His right arm embraces me,”[lxxxvi] referring to the state of God actually bringing us close to Himself. These faculties—love and fear—are the arms and the body of the soul—love and kindness are the “right arm,” fear and severity are the “left arm.”[lxxxvii]
Judgement and mercy operate together—interwoven and inseparable. You cannot have mercy without judgment, and you cannot have judgment without mercy. These are not individual choices, nor do they contradict each other, but work together as a single unit of God's providence and sovereignty. And so it is with Yeshua’s ministry; He will administer both mercy and judgment according to the Father’s will and allotted time.
Yeshua is the arm of God revealed to creation, as it says, “Who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed?” (Isaiah 53:1). At His first appearance, Yeshua came as a man and a suffering servant. These are represented by the Cherubim images of the man and an ox, as it says, “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many” (Mark 10:45). We who are born again in His likeness are also to become servants of all men.[lxxxviii]
Christ became the mediator of the New Covenant of God’s grace and mercy, and for this reason He is seated at the right hand of the Father.[lxxxix] But at His second coming, Christ is returning in His divine appearance as the righteous judge of the earth—the King of Kings and Lord of lords[xc]—“[and] He shall devour on the left hand [of judgement] And not be satisfied” (Isaiah 9:20). These are represented by the Cherubim images of the eagle and lion.
Having only two Cherubim associated with the Ark of the Covenant tells us that Christ’s ministry with Israel is not complete. Yeshua’s merciful time with Israel lasted for three and a half years. God’s final severity with Israel before His return is called the “time of Jacob’s trouble.” It will last for another three and a half years, totaling seven—the number of Divine completion.[xci] This is the Lord’s final judgement against Israel (the seventieth week of Daniel[xcii]), and we see His judgement, in part administered by the four Angels of Destruction revealed in the Book of Revelation.[xciii]
When Yeshua returns to Jerusalem, the Tabernacle and its ministry of testimony will be finished, as it says, “Then it shall come to pass, when you are multiplied and increased in the land in those days, says the LORD, that they will say no more, The ark of the covenant of the LORD. It shall not come to mind, nor shall they remember it, nor shall they visit it, nor shall it be made anymore” (Jeremiah 3:16). There will no longer be any need for the Ark because the Ark of heaven, Yeshua Himself will be ruling the nations of the earth from Jerusalem. No longer will Israel need to be reminded of God’s law, for He will put His law in their minds and write it on their hearts[xciv]—“The days are at hand [says the Lord], and the fulfillment of every vision” (Ezekiel 12:23); “No more shall every man teach his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says the Lord” (Jeremiah 31:34); “For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord As the waters cover the sea” (Isaiah 11:9).
The Red Heifer
The ordinance of the Red Heifer (Figure 14) has remained a mystery to the rabbis to this very day: “This is the ordinance of the law which the Lord has commanded, saying: Speak to the children of Israel, that they bring you a red heifer without blemish, in which there is no defect and on which a yoke has never come. You shall give it to Eleazar the priest, that he may take it outside the camp, and it shall be slaughtered before him; and Eleazar the priest shall take some of its blood with his finger, and sprinkle some of its blood seven times directly in front of the tabernacle of meeting. Then the heifer shall be burned in his sight: its hide, its flesh, its blood, and its offal shall be burned. And the priest shall take cedar wood and hyssop and scarlet, and cast them into the midst of the fire burning the heifer” (Numbers 19:2-6).
“Then a man who is clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer, and store them outside the camp in a clean place; and they shall be kept for the congregation of the children of Israel for the water of purification; it is for purifying from sin. And the one who gathers the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until evening. It shall be a statute forever to the children of Israel and to the stranger who dwells among them” (Numbers 19:9-10).
The symbolism of the Red Heifer only becomes clear when we compare it to the sacrifice of Christ. Yeshua symbolically is the Red Heifer, the ox and the suffering servant who carries our burden and our transgressions upon His back. We see this in the image of one of the four Cherubim angels. It is displayed on the banner standing before the tribes of Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh. Red is the color of sin, and Yeshua became our sin. He was without defect or blemish, without sin, had never sinned, nor previously carried the burden of any sin upon His back. This is the law of the Red Heifer. He was cut off and crucified outside the camp of His people and outside the Tabernacle of the Lord.[xcv]
The blood of the Red Heifer was sprinkled seven times before the Tabernacle as a sign to the people, indicating that God’s work on the cross was complete. The Red Heifer was burned in its entirety, symbolizing the final work of the Holy Spirit to make atonement and purification for our sins.
Three other elements are associated with the Red Heifer: Cedar wood, which is believed to be the material of the cross; hyssop, which is the bitter herb used to give Yeshua a drink from a vial offering corrupted by sinful man; and scarlet, which is the color of our sins. All these elements were cast into the fire, again symbolizing the final work and Baptism by fire of the Holy Spirit, as it says, “He is like a refiner’s fire And like launderers’ soap” (Malachi 3:2). The ashes of the Red Heifer were kept for the purification of the Tabernacle’s water, again symbolic of our washing and purification from sin. Lastly, the statute of the Red Heifer is eternal, indicating that we will always remember and be eternally grateful for what Christ has sacrificed for us.
Our Journey of Salvation
We have been learning about the construction and artifacts of the Tabernacle and how every detail points to Christ. This was just a quick overview and there is considerably more to discover, including all the symbolism hidden in the sacrifices and priestly rituals. Let us now go through the journey of salvation in Christ, who is the Shechinah, the Tabernacle and the Kingdom of God.
We enter the Kingdom through the narrow gate. Remember that the gate is narrow, and the path leading to eternal life is difficult.[xcvi] Very few find it because very few are even looking or searching. But we have surrendered and accepted Christ’s sacrifice on the cross. We have confessed our belief in Him and are baptized in water. This is where we are washed in His word, growing in faith, knowledge, and wisdom. We open our hearts and invite Him into the door of our heart, which is the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. Our hearts have become a Tabernacle, the Temple of the living God.
When the bible tells us that we are “in Christ,” it literally means that we now dwell in His heavenly Tabernacle which is Christ Himself.[xcvii] In this place of intimacy we have received His Holy Spirit and His Glory which is manifest within us as the Shechinah— His light (the Golden Lampstand), and His bread of life (the Bread of His presence). Here in the Tabernacle of Christ we take our daily Communion with Him, and in this place He will forever make intercession for us through His prayers. We have now been taken past the torn veil into the Holy of Holies where we experience the deepest and most intimate relationship with our heavenly Father. The Lord God speaks to us from the Mercy Seat, and we hear His voice. In this place we now can fully worship the Lord in His spirit and His truth.[xcviii]
Studying the Tabernacle has been a joyful experience. However, visualizing this relatively small tent surrounded by the immense wilderness of the Sinai desert left me with a feeling of emptiness that I knew could only be filled with the indwelling presence of the Lord. The Tabernacle, as beautiful as it was, does not compare to the beauty we now have in Christ—our true heavenly Tabernacle.
In September 1977, my family visited the home of a Messianic rabbi in Jerusalem—Rabbi Moshe Ben Meir (Figure 15) and his lovely wife Ahuva. I was nine years old at the time. It was during the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot), and I remember so clearly the peace and calm that surrounded their home. Their beautiful house was perched on a hillside, facing southward and overlooking a garden below. A meandering valley with rolling hills in the distance painted the Judean landscape from their living room window.
They had an enormous library with one book in particular that caught my attention. It was about the archeology of the Temple Mount, and it clearly depicted to scale the outline of the Temple structure and its subterranean world. I had recently visited these ruins in the city, my mind struggling to reassemble the piles of broken stones. But now I was able see order out of chaos. “What a beautiful Temple,” I thought to myself. “How could God have allowed His holy place to lay in ruins?” I remember asking the Lord, “Can I rebuild Your holy Temple?” It was a yearning in my heart to see beauty restored from ashes, and a longing for peace and stability to be restored to this amazing city.
The bible tells us that one day soon the Temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem. This might seem strange to many Christians. Why do we need a Temple that points to a Messiah when the Messiah has returned to Jerusalem? Well as they say, “this is not your father’s Oldsmobile,” neither will the Temple of the Messiah be “your father’s Tabernacle,” as it says, “The glory of this latter temple shall be greater than the former,’ says the Lord of hosts” (Haggai 2:9).
The blueprint for the Millennial Temple is found in the Book of Ezekiel. The rabbis have meticulously studied the prophets and determined that the Temple of the Messiah will be enormous compared with the Temple of Solomon, covering more than 500 acres.[xcix] And it will be square, which is consistent with the description of the New Jerusalem found in the Book of Revelation.[c] Rather than being visited three times per year by just the men of Israel, the Millennial Temple will be visited frequently by men and women from every nation: “And it shall come to pass That from one New Moon to another, And from one Sabbath to another, All flesh shall come to worship before Me, says the LORD” (Isaiah 66:23).
As believers, we now have both the Holy Spirit as a deposit of our inheritance in Christ, and we have the divine manifestation of God’s Glory that dwells within us—His Shechinah. We are both the Temple of the living God and the chariot that carries His indwelling presence throughout the earth.[ci] At this time we labor to build the Spiritual Temple of God, which is His church, but when Christ returns, we will serve Him in overseeing the building of His earthly Temple in Jerusalem. Then one day He will make a new heaven and a new earth, and the holy city, the New Jerusalem, will come down from heaven as a bride adorned for her husband.[cii]
We get the best of both worlds, as it says, “Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection” (Revelation 20:6). We receive Christ as our heavenly inheritance, and we receive the nations as our earthly inheritance. May the revealed Shechinah of Yeshua come soon to Jerusalem so that we may dwell together forever in the Tabernacle of Christ.
[i] Revelation 19:10.
[ii] All Scripture quotations are taken from the New King James Bible (NKJV) unless otherwise noted, Thomas Nelson Inc., 1982.
[iii] The Tanya of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi. Elucidated by Rabbi Yosef Wineberg. Translated from Yiddish by Rabbi Levy Wineberg and Rabbi Sholom B. Wineberg. Edited by Uri Kaploun. Published and copyright by Kehot Publication Society.
[iv] Samuel, Gabriella. The Kabbalah Handbook. Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc., New York. 2007.
[v] James 3:1-8, Luke 9:54.
[vi] Meyerhoff-Hieronimus, J. Zohara. Kabbalistic Teachings of the Female Prophets. Inner Traditions Rochester, Vermont. 2008.
[vii] Rabbi Resnik, Russell. Gateways to Torah. Leadered Books, a Division of Messianic Jewish Publications. 2000.
[viii] Ibid. Kabbalistic Teachings of the Female Prophets.
[ix] Ibid. Gateways to Torah.
[x] John 10:2-3.
[xi] Rabbi Granot, Tamir. Pillar of Fire, Pillar of Cloud. Translated by Kaeren Fish. Yeshivat AMIT Orot Shaul.
[xii] Ibid. Kabbalistic Teachings of the Female Prophets.
[xiii] Ibid. The Tanya of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi.
[xiv] Deuteronomy 23:16.
[xv] Ibid. The Kabbalah Handbook.
[xvi] Rabbi Moses ben Maimon (Hebrew: Mōšeh bēn-Maymōn), commonly known as Maimonides (my-MON-i-deez), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimon, Maimonides was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages. Wikipedia.
[xvii] Ibid. The Kabbalah Handbook.
[xviii] Matthew 11:28-29.
[xix] Ibid. Kabbalistic Teachings of the Female Prophets.
[xx] Bamidbar Rabba (2:7), and Ibn Ezra.
[xxi] Ezekiel 1:5 & 10.
[xxii] Revelation 4:6-7.
[xxiii] Isaiah 6:1-2.
[xxiv] Exodus 17:5, Song of Solomon 2:4.
[xxv] John 10:9.
[xxvi] 1 Kings 18:33, Daniel 7:2, Revelation 9:15.
[xxvii] Luton, L. Grant. In His Own Words. Beth Tikkun Publishing. 2005.
[xxviii] Ezekiel 8:6.
[xxix] Luke 19:41-44.
[xxx] John 14:6.
[xxxi] Psalm 37:23, Isaiah 30:21.
[xxxii] Ezekiel 43:1-2.
[xxxiv] Exodus 27:1, Numbers 4:13.
[xxxv] Leviticus 7:20, Isiah 48:18-19.
[xxxvi] Leviticus 6:13. Wikipedia.
[xxxvii] Isaiah 53:5.
[xxxviii] Revelation 1:15.
[xxxix] Leviticus 26:19.
[xl] Numbers 28:14, Matthew 26:28.
[xli] Matthew 5:13.
[xlii] Exodus 29:18, 1 Corinthians 5:7, Ephesians 5:2.
[xliii] Matthew 5:13, Galatians 2:20 & 5:24.
[xliv] 1 Peter 4:13.
[xlv] Exodus 30:17-19.
[xlvi] Matthew 15:24.
[xlvii] John 4:46.
[xlviii] John 13:5, Ephesians 5:25-27.
[xlix] Exodus 38:8.
[l] Rabbi Waxman, Chanoch. Parshat Teruma—Of Sequence and Sanctuary: The View of Rashi. The Herzog Academic College.
[li] Exodus 19:6.
[lii] Deuteronomy 10:16.
[liii] Exodus 19:6.
[liv] Ibid. The Tanya of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi.
[lvi] Exodus 26:1, 31, 33-35.
[lvii] Exodus 24:10.
[lviii] Rabbi Leve, Yitzchak. The Colors of the Mishkan. Yeshivat Har Etzion.
[lix] Numbers 4:13, John 19:2.
[lx] Isiah 1:18, Numbers 19:6, 1 Corinthians 5:21.
[lxi] Psalm 51:7, Revelation 3:5 & 19:14.
[lxii] Revelation 14:14 & 21:18.
[lxiii] Rabbi Samet, Elchanan. The Sacrificial Altar and the Structure of the Parasha. The Herzog Academic College.
[lxiv] Exodus 27:17.
[lxv] Ibid. John 1:14.
[lxvi] Psalm 2:9 & 107:16.
[lxvii] Exodus 25:23 & 30.
[lxviii] Leviticus 1:10-11.
[lxix] Jacobs, Joseph and Hirsch, Emil G. Showbread—Composition and Presentation. JewishEncyclopedia.com.
[lxx] Numbers 4:7-8.
[lxxi] John 6:47-48, 1 Corinthians 11:24.
[lxxii] John 6:41, Isaiah 53:4-6.
[lxxiii] Exodus 25:31 & 27:20-21, Numbers 8:3.
[lxxiv] Isiah 11:2, Revelation 4:5, 1:12-13 & 1:20.
[lxxv] Numbers 4:9.
[lxxvi] John 1:4.
[lxxvii] Exodus 30:1 & 30:6-8, Numbers 4:11.
[lxxviii] Leviticus 16:11-12, Numbers 16:46, John 17:19, Hebrews 10:10.
[lxxix][lxxix] Revelation 8:3.
[lxxx] Isaiah 4:5 & 6:3-4, Hebrews 7:24-25, 2 Corinthians 2:15.
[lxxxi] John 19:30, Matthew 27:51, Hebrews 10:11-14.
[lxxxii] Psalm 19:7.
[lxxxiii] Matthew 5:18.
[lxxxiv] Luke 24:3-4.
[lxxxv] The Temple Institute. Jerusalem, Israel.
[lxxxvi] Song of Solomon 2:6.
[lxxxvii] Ibid. The Tanya of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi.
[lxxxviii] Matthew 11:29-30.
[lxxxix] Acts 2:33.
[xc] Revelation 19:15-16.
[xci] Jeremiah 30:7.
[xcii] Daniel 9:24.
[xciii] Revelation 6:1-8.
[xciv] Jeremiah 31:33.
[xcv] Isaiah 53:8.
[xcvi] Matthew 7:13-14.
[xcvii] Ephesians 1:3.
[xcviii] John 4:24.
[xcix] Rabbi Shurpin, Yehuda. 4 Unique Characteristics of the Third Temple. Chabad.org.
[c] Revelation 21:16.
[ci] 2 Corinthians 6:16.
[cii] Revelation 21:2.